There was some evidence, though not significant, of an inverse association for cancer mortality (0.96, 0.93 to 1.00; P=0.053 for trend). These associations appeared to be linear (fig C and E, appendix 1). Of the participants in the analytic cohort, 43 676 (19 778 men and 23 898 women) participated in the 10 year follow-up survey (that is, the third survey) and completed the food frequency questionnaire. First, we calculated the number of servings according to the food guide criteria. Specifically, vegetables and/or fruits probably protect against cancers of the lung, stomach, oesophagus, mouth, pharynx, and larynx and milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, whereas there is convincing evidence that red meat and processed meat increase the risk of colorectal cancer.42 Of all deaths from cancer in the present cohort, the proportions of deaths from the above mentioned cancers were much higher in men (60.6%) than in women (40.4%). The participants of cohort II included residents aged 40-69 from six public health centre areas (Ibaraki, Niigata, Kochi, Nagasaki, Okinawa-Miyako, and Osaka). This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the probability of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Our study also has several limitations. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease mortality for a 10 point increment in the food guide score were 0.93 (0.89 to 0.98) and 0.89 (0.82 to 0.95), respectively. technical support for your product directly (links go to external sites): Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about The BMJ. We followed up the participants’ residency and vital status from the second survey to 31 December 2012 using the residential registry. All rights reserved. Gram quantities were summed and used to calculate the ratio. As regards cardiovascular disease mortality, we observed a significant inverse trend in individuals with normal weight (P=0.001 for trend) but not in overweight/obese individuals (P=0.87 for trend); there was, however, no significant evidence of a difference in these subgroup effects (P=0.69 for interaction with BMI). Other factors, many of which remain unknown. This lowers the case-fatality ratio. In sensitivity analyses, the observed associations did not change after we excluded total deaths during the first three years of follow-up (n=1031). Of 92 137 participants, we excluded 6215 who reported consumption in the upper 1% of sex specific intakes of each category (grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk, fruits, as well as energy from snacks and alcohol) or in either the upper or lower 1% of sex specific energy intake. This association was partly explained by intake of vegetable dishes and fruits, which have been linked to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease not only in the present study37 but also in numerous other studies.35 Likewise, the association with mortality from cerebrovascular disease was partly explained by intake of fish and meat dishes. In the present cohort, however, dietary intake was generally stable over time; the Spearman rank correlation coefficients of intake of each dish category between the second and the third surveys ranged between 0.46 and 0.64 in men and between 0.45 and 0.64 in women. This protective association was mainly attributable to a reduction in mortality from cerebrovascular disease. Objective To examine the association between adherence to the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top and total and cause specific mortality. Lower mortality was observed for cardiovascular disease among those with a higher score for vegetable dishes or fruits, for cerebrovascular disease among those with a higher score for fish and meat dishes or fruits, and for heart disease among those with a higher milk score. Several studies have suggested that the higher mortality rate in AMI patients admitted during off-hours could be partially explained by the lower implementation rate of PCI [5,19], but this may have a relatively small effect on our analysis due to the higher PCI implementation rates for AMI patients in Japan (66–94%)[12,21] than in other countries (6–50%)[5,22]. Later, progress against mortality was achieved also for adults over 40 and younger children. Hover over the circles to see the country name and a ratio value. Right after the war major prograss was observed for ages from 5 to 40 years. Overall, infant mortality rates have significantly decreased all over the world. The proportional hazards assumption was tested by including a product term between fourths of the score and the follow-up period in the models; no significant violation of the assumption was found (all P>0.10). We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Thoughts On mortality United Nations projections are also included through the year 2100. In sensitivity analyses, the associations between the dietary score and mortality were strengthened after we excluded these individuals. Recommended amount of servings by dish category, total energy, and energy from snacks and alcoholic beverages in Japanese food guide. The Japan Public Health Center based prospective (JPHC) study was launched in 1990 for cohort I and in 1993 for cohort II.27 The participants of cohort I included residents aged 40-59 from five Japanese public health centre areas (Iwate, Akita, Nagano, Okinawa-Chubu, and Tokyo). Many translated example sentences containing "mortality rate" – Japanese-English dictionary and search engine for Japanese translations. Because trends vary by the cause of death, we also determined cause-specific mortality trends. Overall mortality for COVID-19-positive patients was 11 percent. Alcoholism mortality rate in Japan. Compared with individuals with a lower dietary score, individuals with a higher score were older and more likely to be women, be engaged in primary industry, have a history of dyslipidaemia, drink green tea, and have a higher energy intake but were less likely to be a current smoker, drink alcohol every week, or have a history of hypertension (table 3⇓). This epidemiological evidence, including the present findings, suggests that individuals with higher adherence to country specific dietary recommendations have a lower risk of total mortality. The first list is based on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) "2011 annual statistics". We confirmed that the quadratic term of the score added to the multivariable adjusted model was not significantly associated with any outcome. Between 1991 and 2010, post neonatal mortality rate of Japan was declining at a moderating rate to shrink from 2.24 per 1000 births in 1991 to 1.28 per 1000 births in 2010. Japanese people are proven to be the healthiest people in the world, as shown in numerous statistics. The global rate is 211 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients for each intake between the two surveys were as follows: 0.47 and 0.45 for grain dishes, 0.52 and 0.55 for vegetable dishes, 0.46 and 0.50 for fish and meat dishes, 0.52 and 0.51 for milk, 0.54 and 0.56 for fruits, 0.49 and 0.51 for total energy, 0.52 and 0.50 for energy from snacks, and 0.64 and 0.64 for alcohol in men and women, respectively. Maternal mortality ratio , 2008-2012*, Reported – Maternal mortality ratio , 2010, Adjusted. Results Results show very few excess mortality in August and October, 2020 It was estimated as 12 and 104. Snacks and alcoholic beverages included Japanese rice wine (sake), shochu, beer, whisky, wine, Japanese confectionaries, cake, biscuits, chocolate, canned coffee, coke, and sugar in tea and coffee. If the finding was genuine, however, it might potentially be explained by sex difference of major forms of cancer, on which diet has differential impact. ICD-10: international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems: 10th revision. For individuals who were lost to follow-up, we used the last confirmed date of their participation in the study area as the censoring date. It certainly isn’t true that Japan’s infant mortality rate started to drop following a ban on mandatory vaccinations. Please note: your email address is provided to the journal, which may use this information for marketing purposes. One of the most important ways to measure the burden of COVID-19 is mortality. Nevertheless, the perinatal mortality rate in Japan was 4:1000 in 2012,1 which is the lowest in the world. The food guide comprises five categories of dish: grain dishes (including rice, bread, and noodles), vegetable dishes (including vegetables, mushrooms, potatoes, and seaweed), fish and meat dishes (including meat, fish, eggs, and soybeans, milk (milk and milk products), and fruits (fruit and 100% fruit juice) (fig 1⇑).9 Soybeans are included in category of fish and meat dishes on the basis of nutrient profile (high protein). In one serving of a vegetable dish, the main ingredient weighs about 70 g. One serving of fish and meat dish contains about 6 g protein, and one serving of milk contains about 100 mg calcium. The second survey included data on 147 food and beverage items and nine frequency categories.28 For most food items, nine options were available for describing consumption frequency, ranging from rarely (less than once a month) to seven or more times a day. The strengths of the present study were its population based prospective design involving a large cohort, the long duration of follow-up (15 years), and the use of a validated food frequency questionnaire. Life expectancy of the Japanese population has steadily increased over the past few decades and is currently among the longest in the world, with Japanese women recording the longest life expectancy of 87 in 2012.1 Various factors, including socioeconomic and cultural background, as well as universal coverage of health insurance, have jointly contributed to the improvement of health among the Japanese population.2 Of these, special attention has been paid to the role of the Japanese diet, which has been improved in terms of nutritional balance during economic development3 4 while maintaining the traditional dietary culture (for instance, high intake of fish and soybean products and low intake of fat).5 Thus, the association between the diet of the Japanese population and risk mortality is of substantial clinical interest. The score on the food guide between two surveys was also moderately stable. Fish, Seafood. The linear trend was computed by treating exposure as a continuous variable. In this large prospective cohort in Japan, individuals with higher adherence to the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top had a 15% lower total mortality rate. We calculated standardized mortality ratios and compared the mortality rates for each category of infectious disease. Russia’s mortality rate grew by 13.8% during the first eleven months of this year compared to the same period in 2019, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Tatyana Golilkova said on Monday. The infant mortality rate in Japan, for children under the age of one year old, was 166 deaths per thousand births in 1920. FAOSTAT. If individuals consumed the recommended amount of servings from any of the five categories or the recommended total energy or energy from snacks and alcoholic beverages, 10 points were given for that group. In contrast, we assigned the highest score (10 points) to individuals who consumed more than the recommended amounts of vegetable dishes or fruits. A self administrated questionnaire survey was conducted at baseline and at the five and 10 year follow-ups. Chart and table of the Japan infant mortality rate from 1950 to 2021. Participants 36 624 men and 42 970 women aged 45-75 who had no history of cancer, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, or chronic liver disease. Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. When this calculation produced a negative score because of excess servings or energy, the score was converted to 0. Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient of the score was 0.50 in men and 0.45 in women. Firstly, the food frequency questionnaire was not developed for the purpose of estimating the adherence to the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. Both social isolation and loneliness were associated with all-cause mortality; the absolute proportions of deaths were 21.9 vs. 12.3% in the high and low/average isolation groups and 19.2 vs. 13.0% in the high and low/average … There was no significant difference in association with total mortality according to sex and menopausal status. Sex-age-period specific mortality rates of the Japanese population are available at the Portal Site of Official Statistics of Japan (e-Stat).9 Observed and expected number of deaths were then categorised according to attained age group (0–<30, 30–<40, 40–<50, 50–<60, 60–<70, 70–<80 and ≥80 years). The mortality rate in Japan declined steadily from the end of the 19th century until World War 11. The current infant mortality rate for Japan in 2021 is 1.644 deaths per 1000 live births, a 2.38% decline from 2020.; The infant mortality rate for Japan in 2020 was 1.684 deaths per 1000 live births, a 2.32% decline from 2019. Thirdly, our analysis included individuals with a history of diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidaemia, who might have received advice to follow the dietary guidelines for each disease and changed their diet accordingly. Our findings agree with those from other studies that reported that higher diet quality scores were associated with reduced total mortality.10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 In China, the Chinese Food Pagoda score assesses the adherence to the Chinese Food Pagoda, which is based on food groups according to the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese.19 The concept of the Chinese Food Pagoda score is similar to that of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. When individuals consumed more than the recommended equivalents of vegetable dishes or fruits, their scores for these foods were deducted in the previous Japanese study. The assessment of overall diet quality has been shown to be useful in evaluating the effect of diet on morbidity or mortality.6 More than 25 a priori defined dietary scoring systems have been developed to assess diet quality based on adherence to dietary recommendations or guidelines specific to the country where the tool was developed.6 For example, the healthy eating index7 and the alternate healthy eating index8 were developed in the United States according to Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the basis of nutrient and food intake. To estimate the impact of each component of the score on the association between the total dietary score and mortality, we calculated the proportion of hazard ratio attenuation in the highest fourth with the following formula: (hazard ratio adjusted for all covariates plus each dish score−hazard ratio adjusted for all covariates [not including dish score])/(1−hazard ratio adjusted for all covariates [not including dish score])×100. In Japan, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan jointly developed the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top in 2005 (fig 1⇓).9 This guide attempts to illustrate the balance and quantity of food in the daily Japanese diet.9 In 2009, Oba and colleagues developed a scoring system to measure the adherence to the food guide based on intake of grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk, and fruits, as well as the total daily energy and energy from snacks and alcoholic beverages.10. Overall incidence and mortality rates are higher in China than in Japan, and variation in mortality and incidence patterns is greater in China than in Japan. Operationalisation of Japanese food guide score (scored components comprised grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk, fruits, total energy, and snacks and alcoholic beverages; total score 0-70) and modified score (scored components as for standard score plus ratio of white to red meat*; total score 0-80). OUR DATA: We use the most recent data from these primary sources: WHO, World Bank, UNESCO, CIA and individual country databases for global health and causes of death. The National Health and Nutrition Survey 1975-2002. We calculated person years of follow-up for each person starting from the date of response to the second survey questionnaire until the date of death, emigration from Japan, or 31 December 2012, whichever came first. The present study is one of the few to examine the association between adherence to dietary recommendations or guidelines and mortality in Asian populations. Compare that to other developed countries, such as Finland, Italy, or Japan, where the maternal mortality rate is around 3 to 5 deaths per 100,000 births, according to the most recently available data compiled by the CIA. Data sharing: No additional data available. The food guide score and the ratio of white to red meat score were summed to obtain a modified score ranging from 0 (worst) to 80 (best) (table 2⇓). Death rate: 10.2 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.) Conclusion Closer adherence to Japanese dietary guidelines was associated with a lower risk of total mortality and mortality from cardiovascular disease, particularly from cerebrovascular disease, in Japanese adults. Causes of deaths were confirmed through death certificates (with permission) and were defined according to ICD-10 (international classification of diseases, 10th revision).33 The major endpoint of the present study was mortality from all causes, cancer (ICD-10 codes C00 to C97), cardiovascular disease (I00 to I99), heart disease (I20 to I52), and cerebrovascular disease (I60 to I69). There was a significant inverse association with cardiovascular disease mortality in women (P=0.01 for trend) but not in men (P=0.18 for trend); there was, however, no significant evidence of a difference in these effects between men and women (P=0.08 for interaction by sex). Higher diet quality scores have been consistently associated with a lower risk of mortality.10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 All cause mortality was reportedly reduced by 11-42%,10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 cardiovascular disease mortality by 17-60%,10 11 14 15 16 18 19 20 22 23 24 and cancer mortality by 11-40%11 14 15 16 18 19 23 in individuals with the highest category of scores of diet quality compared with individuals with the lowest category. 2005. The Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top is based on the Dietary Guidelines for Japanese, released in 2000, and guides people as to the types and amounts of food they should eat each day to promote health. Objectives In this study, we compared the decrease in cancer mortality rates among prefectures in Japan using age-period-cohort (APC) analysis.Methods We used the cancer mortality data of each prefecture in Japan, as determined by the Vital Statistics, over 5-year periods from 1995 to 2015. This score was inversely associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio associated with a 10 point increase 0.93, 0.89 to 0.98; P=0.005 for trend) and particularly from cerebrovascular disease (0.89, 0.82 to 0.95; P=0.002 for trend). Members of the Japan Public Health Center based Prospective (JPHC) Study Group. MORTALITY Seasonal changes in mortality rates from main causes of death in Japan (1970–1999) Shigeyuki Nakaji1, Stefano Parodi2, Vincenzo Fontana3, Takashi Umeda1, Katsuhiko Suzuki1, Juichi Sakamoto4, Shinsaku Fukuda4, Seiko Wada5 & Kazuo Sugawara1 1Department of Hygiene, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Zaifu-cho 5, Hirosaki, Japan; 2Epidemiology and The score we used in this study was based on the score developed by Oba and colleagues, who found no clear association between the scores and risk of total mortality over seven years of follow-up among men from Japan and a significant inverse association among women.10 We have no clear explanation for the observed difference in men between our study and the previous one,10 but it might be attributable to the different scoring of vegetable dishes and fruits used in each study. How to use mortality in a sentence. Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Estimates developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation ( UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN DESA Population Division ) at childmortality.org . Main outcome measures Deaths and causes of death identified with the residential registry and death certificates. More troublingly, the United States is a place where having a baby means risking your own life, as our Maternal Mortality Rate is the highest in the developed world.. It is usually expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year. 5. Studies in Western populations have shown that better quality of diet is associated with lower mortality from major chronic diseases, The evidence on this issue from prospective studies is scarce among Asian populations, Closer adherence to Japanese dietary guidelines was associated with a lower risk of death from all causes and cardiovascular disease, particularly cerebrovascular disease, Balanced consumption of various dishes might contribute to longevity in the Japanese population. South Dakota ranked third-worst in the world. In 1947, just after World War II, Japan’s infant mortality rate was 76.7, which was relatively high compared to other countries. We determined the scores by measuring adherence to the food guide from information in the food frequency questionnaire. As a result of these trends, South Korea and Japan now exhibit the two highest rates of suicide mortality among all OECD countries. If individuals exceeded or fell short of the recommended servings or energy, the score was calculated proportionately between 0 and 10. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. We classified participants who engaged in manual labour or walked at least one hour a day as moderately physically active and the remaining as sedentary. Definitions and data sources Additionally, several dietary scoring systems have been developed for the assessment of fish and meat separately or the quality of fat,6 which are potentially important for prevention of cardiovascular disease.26 The Japanese food guide score, however, does not distinguish between fish and meat.10 The incorporation of such a component into the original score could improve its prediction of mortality. North Dakota had the highest COVID-19 mortality rate of any other state or even any other country in the world last week, according to a shocking analysis by the Federation of American Scientists. Baseline characteristics of participants* according to score on Japanese food guide. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals of mortality according to score on modified Japanese food guide (lower score=lower adherence=lower quality diet). Secondly, dietary intake was assessed only at baseline and might not represent long term habitual intake relevant to mortality. Grain dishes included rice, vitamin enriched rice, rice with cereal, bread, Japanese wheat noodles, buckwheat noodles, Okinawa noodles, Chinese noodles, and rice cakes. Funding: This study was supported by National Cancer Centre research and development fund (23-A-31[toku] and 26-A-2) (since 2011), a grant-in-aid for Cancer Research from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan (from 1989 to 2010), Practical Research Project for Life-Style related Diseases including Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes Mellitus (15ek0210021h0002) from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, JSPS KAKENHI Grant No 15H04779, and grants-in-aid for research from the National Centre for Global Health and Medicine (26A-201). The current population of Japan in 2021 is 126,050,804, a 0.34% decline from 2020.; The population of Japan in 2020 was 126,476,461, a 0.3% decline from 2019.; The population of Japan in 2019 was 126,860,301, a 0.27% decline from 2018. Our findings suggest that balanced consumption of energy, grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, fish, eggs, soy products, dairy products, confectionaries, and alcoholic beverages can contribute to longevity by decreasing the risk of death, predominantly from cardiovascular disease, in the Japanese population. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations statistics division, 2013. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. After we excluded those with a history of diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidaemia at baseline, the association in men became significant (P=0.004 for trend). JHU.edu Copyright Â© 2021 by Johns Hopkins University & Medicine. The U.S. maternal mortality rate, meanwhile, hovers around that of Serbia, Oman, and Hungary. Milk included cows’ milk, cheese, yoghurt, Japanese probiotic milk drink, and milk in tea and coffee. World Health Organization. There was also significant evidence of a difference in effects between normal and overweight/obese groups. 5th revised and enlarged ed. It has been a challenge to assess the extent of progress due to the lack of reliable and accurate maternal mortality data – particularly in developing-country settings where maternal mortality is high. Definition: This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. Fertility rate, total (births per woman) - Japan from The World Bank: Data. The associations observed with the modified score, with a greater emphasis on fish intake relative to red meat intake, were not significantly different from those with the original score. 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